تحلیل هوشمندی مقصدهای گردشگری شهری در ایران

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسنده

استادیار گردشگری دانشگاه یزد، یزد، ایران

چکیده

در عصر حاضر که فناوری مشخصه بارز آن است، خدمات به شکلی یکپارچه در دسترس استفاده کنندگان قرار گرفته است و فناوری به بنیانی برای شکل‏گیری یا تغییر شکل مقصدهای گردشگری تبدیل شده‏است. این توسعه سریع فناوری در گردشگری و علاقه در حال رشد به هوشمندسازی شهرها، توجه مدیران و سیاستگذاران مقصدها را به فرصت هایی که از کاربرد راهبرد هوشمندی ایجاد می‏شود، جلب کرده است. بنابراین، هدف این تحقیق تعیین ابعاد یا مولفه‏های هوشمندی مقصدهای گردشگری شهری، و شاخص‏های سنجش آنها به گونه‏ای است که بر اساس آن بتوان به سنجش هوشمندی مقصدهای گردشگری پرداخت. بر این اساس، گام‏های سه گانه‏ پژوهشی تعیین شده‏اند. در گام اول به احصای مولفه‏های هوشمندی و شاخص‏های سنجش آنها و اعتبارسنجی آنها با استفاده از نظر خبرگان پرداخته شده است. در گام دوم تحقیق با استفاده از ابزار پرسشنامه آنلاین و نظرسنجی از 320 خبره گردشگری در سطح 12 مقصد گردشگری منتخب، علاوه‏بر سنجش میزان هوشمندی، میزان تاثیرگذاری هریک از مولفه‏های هوشمندی تعیین شده است. در گام سوم تحقیق، با استفاده از آزمون تحلیل واریانس یک‏طرفه و آزمون توکی، تفاوت بین میزان هوشمندی مقصدهای گردشگری شهری منتخب در کل و به تفکیک مولفه‏ها تحلیل شده است. بر اساس نتایج تحقیق شش مولفه و پنجاه و هفت شاخص برای سنجش هوشمندی تعیین شدند. همچنین مشخص شد که تفاوت معناداری بین هوشمندی مقصدهای گردشگری شهری وجود دارد و بر آن اساس، قم دارای بیشترین و ساری دارای کمترین میزان هوشمندی است.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

The analysis of smartness of urban tourism destinations in Iran

نویسنده [English]

  • Ali Delshad
Faculty member at Yazd University
چکیده [English]

In the present age, which is characterized by technology, services have been made available to users in an integrated manner, and technology has become the basis for the formation or transformation of tourist destinations. This rapid development of technology in tourism and the growing interest in smart cities has attracted the attention of destination managers and policymakers to the opportunities created by the implementation of smart strategies. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to determine the dimensions or components of smartness of urban tourist destinations, and their measurement indicators in a way that can be used to measure the smartness of tourist destinations. Consequently, three research steps are determined. In the first step, the components of smartness and their measurement indicators have been determined and validated using the opinion of experts. In the second step, using an online questionnaire and a survey of 320 tourism experts at the level of 12 selected tourism destinations, in addition to measuring the smartness, the impact of each component of smartness has been determined. In the third step, using one-way analysis of variance test and Tukey test, the difference between the smartness of selected urban tourism destinations in general and by components is analyzed. Based on the research results, six components and fifty-seven indicators for measuring smartness were determined. It was also found that there was a significant difference between the smartness of urban tourist destinations and based on that, Qom has the highest and Sari has the lowest level of smartness.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Tourism
  • Smartness
  • Urban tourism destinations
  • Iran
دفتر برنامه‏ریزی و بودجۀ وزارت میراث فرهنگی، گردشگری و صنایع دستی (1396). آمار گردشگران ورودی به اماکن اقامتی استان‏ها.
دفتر مطالعات ارتباطات و فناوری‌های نوین معاونت پژوهش‌های زیربنایی و امور تولیدی مرکز پژوهش‎های مجلس. (1395). گزارش شهر هوشمند و الزامات قانونی، شهریور 1395. شمارۀ مسلسل 14971. صفحات 12-8. https://rc.majlis.ir/fa/report/download/985405
دومین همایش شهر هوشمند، زیرساخت و فرصت‏های سرمایه‏گذاری (1395). 1 و 2 شهریور، تهران، مرکز همایش‎های بین‏المللی برج میلاد. http://2.iransmartcity.cnf.ir/fa
فرزین، محمدرضا؛ سارا صفری (1388). شناخت نظام مدیریت مقصد گردشگری (DMS) و چالش‏های توسعۀ آن در ایران، جغرافیا و توسعه. دورۀ 7. شمارۀ 16. زمستان 1388. صفحه 118-93. https://gdij.usb.ac.ir/article_1177.html
قربانی، امیر؛ ابوالفضل  دانایی؛ سیدمحمد زرگر؛ هادی همتیان (1398). شناسایی عوامل هوشمندی سازمان در سازمان‌های ارائه‌دهندۀ خدمات‌ گردشگری در استان خراسان جنوبی، دورۀ 9.شمارۀ 30. بهار 1398. صفحات 156-137. https://gaij.usb.ac.ir/article_4445.html
مرکز آمار ایران. (1396). سالنامۀ آماری کشور.https://www.amar.org.ir/Portals/0/Files/fulltext/1396/N_Salname_Keshvar_96.pdf
Almobaideen, Wesam; Krayshan, Rand; Allan, Mamoon; Saadeh, Maha (2017). Internet of Things: Geographical Routing based on healthcare centers vicinity for mobile smart tourism destination, journal of technological forecasting & social change, Technological Forecasting & Social Change, 123 (2017), 342-350.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.techfore.2017.04.016
Angeloni, Silvia (2016). A tourist kit ‘made in Italy’: An ‘intelligent’ system for implementing new generation destination cards, Tourism Management, 52 (2016), 187-209. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tourman.2015.06.011
Ayscue, Emily P.; Boley, B. Bynum; Mertzlufft, Caitlin E (2016). Mobile technology & resident attitude research, Tourism Management, 52 (2016), 559-562. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tourman.2015.08.002
Bogicevic, Vanja; Bujisic, Milos, Bilgihan, Anil; Yang, Wan, Cobanoglu, Cihan (2017). the impact of traveler-focused airport technology on traveler satisfaction, Technological Forecasting & Social Change, 123 (2017), 351-361. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.techfore.2017.03.038
Bosch, Sheila J. & Gharaveis, Arsalan (2017). Flying solo: A review of the literature on wayfinding for older adults experiencing visual or cognitive decline, Applied Ergonomics, 58 (2017), 327-333. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apergo.2016.07.010
Buhalis, D., & Amaranggana, A (2014). Smart Tourism Destinations. In Z. Xiang& L.Tussyadiah (Eds.), Information & Communication Technologies in Tourism 2014 (pp. 553-564). Dublin: Springer. https://www.cyberstrat.net/ENTER14SmartTourismDestinations-libre.pdf
Buhalis, Dimitrios & Foerste, Marie (2015). SoCoMo marketing for travel and tourism: Empowering co-creation of value, journal of destination marketing & management, 4 (2015) 151-161. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jdmm.2015.04.001
Buonincontri, Piera; Micera, Roberto (2016). the experience co-creation in smart tourism destinations: a multiple case analysis of European destinations, Information Technology of Tourism (2016) 16: 285-315. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40558-016-0060-5
Chung, Namho; Han, Heejeong; Joun, Younhee (2015). Tourists' intention to visit a destination: The role of augmented reality (AR) application for a heritage site, computers in human behavior, 50 (2015), 588-599. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2015.02.068
Chung, Namho; Lee, Hyunae; Lee, Seung Jae; Koo, Chulmo (2015). The influence of tourism website on tourists' behavior to determine destination selection: A case study of creative economy in Korea, Technological Forecasting & Social Change, 96 (2015), 130-143. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.techfore.2015.03.004
Cohen, B (2012) Smart cities hub. Retrieved 22 July 2013.http://smartcitieshub.com/2012/11/11/smart-cities-ranking-methodology/
Del Chiappa,G., & Baggio, R (2015). “Knowledge transfer in smart tourism destinations: Analyzing the effects of a network structure”. Journal of Destination Marketing and Management, 4(3), 145-150. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jdmm.2015.02.001
Del Vecchio, P., & Passiante, G (2017). “Is tourism a driver for smart specialization? Evidence from Apulia, an Italian region with a tourism vocation”. Journal of Destination Marketing and Management, 6(3), 163-165. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jdmm.2016.09.005
Del Vecchio, P., Mele, G., Ndou, V., & Secundo, G (2018). “Creating value from Social Big Data: Implications for Smart”. Information Processing and Management, 54(5), 847–860.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.future.2017.01.032
Díaz-Díaz, Raimundo; Muñoz, Luis; Pérez-González, Daniel (2017). Business model analysis of public services operating in the smart city ecosystem: The case of SmartSantander, Future Generation Computer Systems, 76 (2017), 198-14.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.future.2017.01.032
Dinhopl, Anja; Gretzel, Ulrike (2016). Selfie-taking as touristic looking, Annals of Tourism Research, 57 (2016), 126-139. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.annals.2015.12.015
Germann Molz, J (2012). Travelconnections: Tourism, technology and togheterness in a mobile world. London: Routledge. 
Ghorbani, Amir; Danaei, Abolfazl; Zargar, Seyed Mohammad; Hematian, Hadi (2019). Designing of smart tourism organization (STO) for tourism management: A case study of tourism organizations of South Khorasan province, Iran, Heliyon, 5 (2019), 1-9. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.heliyon.2019.e01850
Han, Heejeong; Park, Arum; Chung, Namho; Lee, Kyoung Jun (2016). A near field communication adoption and its impact on Expo visitors ‘behavior, International Journal of Information Management, 36 (2016), 1328-1339. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijinfomgt.2016.04.003
Hao, Jin-Xing; Yu, Yan; Law, Rob; Fong, Davis Ka Chio (2015). A genetic algorithm-based learning approach to understand customer satisfaction with OTA websites, Tourism Management, 48 (2015),  231-241. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tourman.2014.11.009
Li, Yunpeng; Hu, Clark; Huang, Chao; Duan, Liqiong (2017). The concept of smart tourism in the context of tourism information services. Tourism management. 58 (2017), 293-300. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tourman.2016.03.014
Liua, Yuan-Yuan; Tseng, Fang-Mei; Tseng, Yi-Heng (2018). Big Data analytics for forecasting tourism destination arrivals with the applied Vector Autoregression model, Technological Forecasting & Social Change,130(2018), 123-134. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.techfore.2018.01.018
Marchiori, Elena; Cantori, Lorenzo (2015). the role of prior experience in the perception of a tourism destination in user-generated content, Journal of Destination Marketing & Management, 4 (2015) 194-201. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jdmm.2015.06.001
Marine-Roig, Estela & Anton Clavé, Salvador (2015). Tourism analytics with massive user-generated content: A case study of Barcelona, Journal of Destination Marketing & Management, 4 (2015), 162-172. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jdmm.2015.06.004
Michael, Noela; Reisinger, Yvette; Hayes, John P (2019). The UAE's tourism competitiveness: A business perspective, Tourism Management Perspectives, 30 (2019), 53-64. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tmp.2019.02.002
Murgante, Beniamino; Borruso, Giuseppe (2013). Cities and Smartness: A Critical Analysis of Opportunities and Risks, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg, PP.630-642. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/237073200_Cities_and_Smartness_A_Critical_Analysis_of_Opportunities_and_Risks
Park, Sangwon; Kim, Dae-Young (2017). Assessing language discrepancies between travelers and online travel recommendation systems: Application of the Jaccard distance score to web data mining, Technological Forecasting & Social Change, 123 (2017), 381-388. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.techfore.2017.03.031
Pesonen, Juho & Horster, Eric (2012). near field communication technology in tourism, tourism management perspectives, 4 (2012), 11-18. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tmp.2012.04.001
Ramaprasad, Arkalgud; Sánchez-Ortiz, Aurora; Syn, Thant (2017). A Unified Definition of a Smart City, IFIP International Federation for Information, Processing 2017, Published by Springer International Publishing AG 2017. All Rights Reserved PP.13-24. https://hal.inria.fr/hal-01702978/document
Raun, Janika; Ahas, Rein; Tiru, Margus (2016). Measuring tourism destinations using mobile tracking data, Tourism Management, 57 (2016), 202-212. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tourman.2016.06.006
Romãoa, J., Kourtit, K., Neuts, B., & Nijkamp, P (2018). “The smart city as a common place for tourists and residents: A structural analysis of the determinants of urban attractiveness”. Cities, 78, 67-75. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cities.2017.11.007
Shafiee, Sanaz; Rajabzadeh Ghatarib, Ali; Hasanzadeh, Alireza; Jahanyan, Saeed (2019). Developing a model for sustainable smart tourism destinations: A systematic review, Tourism Management Perspectives, 31 (2019), 287-300. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tmp.2019.06.002
Sung, Tae Kyung (2015). the creative economy in global competition, Technological Forecasting & Social Change, 96 (2015), 89-91. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.techfore.2015.04.003
Supak, Stacy; Brothers, Gene; Bohnenstiehl, DelWayne; Devine, Hugh (2015). Geospatial analytics for federally managed tourism destinations and their demand markets, journal of destination marketing & management 4 (2015) 173-186. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jdmm.2015.05.002
Tavakoli, Rokhshad; Mura, Paolo (2018). Netnography in tourism – Beyond Web 2.0, Annals of Tourism Research, 73 (2018), 190-192. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.annals.2018.06.002
Tribe, John & Mkono, Muchazondida (2017). Not such smart tourism? The concept of e-lienation, Annals of Tourism Research, 66 (2017), 105-115. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.annals.2017.07.001
Wang, D., Li X. R., & Li, Y (2013). “China's "smart tourism destination" initiative: A taste of the service-dominant logic”. Journal of Destination Marketing and Management, 2(2), 59-61. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jdmm.2013.05.004
Xiang, Zheng; Fesenmaier, Daniel R (2017). Analytics in smart tourism design, consepts and methods, Springer International Publishing, Switzerland.
Yoo, Chul Woo; Goo, Jahyun; Huang, C. Derrick; Nam, Kichan; Woo, Mina (2017). Improving travel decision support satisfaction with smart tourism technologies: A framework of tourist elaboration likelihood and self-efficacy, Technological Forecasting & Social Change, 123 (2017), 330-341. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.techfore.2016.10.071