کارآفرین یا تولیدکننده؟ سنت‌‌های مردسالارانه، هویت‌‌های جنسیتی و ماندگاری کسب‌‌ و‌‌کار تأملی بر فعالیت زنان در بخش کشاورزی نواحی روستایی دوردست مطالعۀ موردی: دهستان جیرستان، شهرستان شیروان

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسنده

استادیار جغرافیا و برنامه‌‌ریزی روستایی، دانشگاه حکیم سبزواری

چکیده

در پژوهش حاضر، به شناسایی هویت زنان شاغل در بخش کشاورزی -با محتوای در برابر و یا سازش با آموزه‌‌های پساتولیدگرایی و ابتکارات کارآفرینانه درجهت تولید محصولات کیفیت‌‌دار و سالم و منطبق با اصول زیست محیطی- به‌‌منظور تصور از خود به‌‌عنوان کارآفرین و یا تولیدکننده پرداخته شده است. مطالعات میدانی در 17 سکونتگاه روستایی دهستان جیرستان از توابع بخش سرحد شهرستان شیروان (کوهستانی و دوردست با سبقه عشایری) انجام گرفتهو روستابودگی‌‌های جنسیتی متفاوتی را در خود جای داده است که زنان در روستا عهده‌‌دار مسئولیت مدیریت کشاورزی و مردان در شهر (به امید یافتن شرایط کاری و درآمدی بهتر)حضور داشته و دخالتی در امور این بخش ندارند. هویت‌‌های کشاورزی از‌‌طریق روش تحلیل کیفی با رویکرد تحلیل محتوا و مصاحبه با 57 نفر از زنان جیرستانی که حضور تمام‌‌وقت در مزرعه داشتند، استخراج شده است. تحلیل تجربیات زنان جیرستانی در کشاورزی منجر‌‌به شناسایی 478 کد اولیه، 19 زیر طبقه و 4 طبقۀ اصلی و 1 درون‌‌مایه شد. نتایج به‌‌دست آمده نشان‌‌داد که زنان جیرستانی خود را تولیدکننده می‌‌دانند و کارآفرینی و کارآفرین‌‌بودن را تجربه نمی‌‌کنند؛ بدین شرح که با تمرکز بر کشاورزی فعلی و تولید محصولات غیرمتعارف (و نه محصولات ارگانیک و سالم و طبیعی)، هم می‌‌توان به ابتکارات جدید کارآفرینانه دست یافت و نیازی به اضافه‌‌کردن فعالیت به مزرعه و به‌‌نوعی تنوع‌‌سازی نیست. استدلال نگارنده بر این است که چنین گزینه‌‌های جایگزینی از‌‌سوی زنان روستایی، به اشتباه در کارهای پژوهشی به‌‌منزلۀ «کالایی‌‌کردن سنت‌‌های محلی» یعنی گرایش به ابتکارات نوین کارآفرینی شناخته می‌‌شود؛ درحالی‌‌که دغدغۀ روستاییان دربارۀ عملی‌‌نشدن و دوری از «علایق اقتصادی و منافع اجتماعی خود» می‌‌باشد که بیانی از وظایف کاری پیشین و آگاهی از سنت است (مکانیسم قدرت و مقاومت محلی).

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Entrepreneur or producer? Patriarchal traditions, gendered identities, resilience of Business Understanding women work in remote rural agriculture

نویسنده [English]

  • reza khosrobeigi bozcheloei
چکیده [English]

The aim of this paper is to review this issue is: what role for women in agriculture are there? Its activities in line with the new agricultural reform and as a farmer, you know? Identification and exchange of information in this article through interviews with 57 women who attended full-time in agriculture has been done. Qualitative method in this paper by content analysis was the key concepts and key issues rather than imposing predetermined considers theoretical framework. The analysis of the experiences of Jirestan women in agriculture led to the identification of 478 primary codes, 19 sub categories and 4 main categories and 1 Theme. Overall, Jirestan women farmers have achieved a new way of production that gives them permission to do so within the new conditions of economic and social role; The difference is that with the current focus on agriculture and gender relations and the relations of production can be Entrepreneurial initiatives, and there is no need to add activities to the farm. In addition, I argue in this paper that such alternatives tend to be confused by rural women in research work as "commodification of a local tradition" will be remembered. Unfortunately, basic shortcomings that interpretation of the normative patterns institutionalized in agriculture and rural areas (Power mechanisms and local resistance).

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • identity
  • entrepreneur
  • producer
  • powe

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