عنوان مقاله [English]
Problem: To study and analyze the housing access of a community, as a basic human need, in the process of urban planning and policy-making is a critical endeavour. Housing is not entirely an separable area of decision-making as it affects and is affected by the social and political relations of societies, and hence is considered as a social issue and part of social services besides being a matter of public policy-making and planning. In this regard, the state intervention in planning and policy-making, supply, support and management of housing is one of the necessities of public administration. Access to housing in a society is a widely held goal that its achievement could be challenged by disregarding the social status of housing and the lack of systematic approach in housing policy-making and planning processes. This would result in spatial (i.e., multidimensional, including economic, social, physical, dimensions) inequality. Tehran, the capital of Iran that has densely contained various social, economic and political activities, is a complex urban system, which its complexity makes it more vulnerable when confronting deficiencies in policy-making, especially in regards to its having an incomplete and unsystematic planning approach. Due to the intense, accelerated, unplanned and migratory growth of Tehran and its surrounding environment, the severe inequality is more evident compared to the other cities of Iran. Such inequality has resulted in the growth of informal urban-peripheral settlements. Furthermore, it has contributed to the formation of such problems as the degradation of the natural environment, land and housing speculation and the degradation of housing structure. The existence and continuity of such a problematic situation has affected negatively the access of significant parts of the population in Tehran to housing.
Purpose: The purpose is to study the extent and condition of spatial inequality in the housing system of Tehran and also to study its variance among the 22 urban districts of Tehran. This is to response to the underlying question of this paper, i.e., “based on the price of housing, what is the status of the duality of spatial equality-inequality in the housing system of Tehran, and how the trends has changed over time?” Thus, this paper has studied the dispersion of spatial inequality in the housing system of Tehran and its transformation over a 26-year period of 1991 to 2016.
Methodology: To achieve the set purpose of this paper, a dual descriptive-analytical path has been designed for, and subsequently implemented in the first path of this paper. The first path -- as the basic research of this paper -- involves four steps. The first step is to trace and describe both the characteristics of spatial inequality and the housing system of cities in general, as well as tracing the different approaches to spatial inequality worldwide. The second step, regarding the indicators of spatial inequality, presents a description of the urban housing spatial inequality. The third step concerns the technical framework of this paper, which studies and compares the methods and techniques that has been used to analyze spatial inequality, worldwide. Among the studied methods to be utilized in the second path of this paper, a method with two consecutive steps is devised. The first step, has measured the spatial inequality of the housing system of Tehran during the 26-year time period. By measuring the spatial inequality in Tehran, in the second step, the output of the measurement of spatial inequality in the housing system of Tehran has been discussed by relating it to the output of the theoretical discussion as done on the first path. Overall, the main outcome of this paper is the description and analysis of spatial inequality in the housing system of Tehran. The information and data for the second descriptive-analytical process has been obtained from two sources. The first is the processing of information of the secondary sources and texts related to the subject of this paper. The second source is the quantitative data of the Iran's real-estate information system and the quantitative data generated by the housing office of the Ministry of Road and Urban Planning in Iran.
Findings: The analysis of spatial inequality in the housing system of Tehran was based on the indicator of housing price, as an indicator that represents the overall and total values of the objective and subjective value system of housing. This displays the severe spatial inequality that exists in the housing system of Tehran during the studied period (i.e., from 1991 to 2016). It was during this period that the spatial inequality in the housing system of Tehran experienced an increasing trend. The massive growth of house price over the studied period, which rests in the framework of market mechanism in Tehran, has led to the accentuation of the capitalist aspect of housing, itself exacerbating inequality among different socio-economic groups of the society and among the owners and non-owners. The severe increase in prices has caused the population living in the vast inner areas of Tehran (almost within the southern parts of the city) to face the unavoidable problem of inequality and the unequal situation, extenuated by the political and socio-economic inequalities which has created the spatial inequality.