یکی از مفاهیم بنیادین در ژئومورفولوژی که بسیاری از نظریهپردازیها و مدلسازیها بر اساس آن استوار شده است، مفهوم زمان است. موضوع مدلسازیهای تاریخی همواره یکی از دغدغههای محققان به ویژه ژئومورفولوژیستها بوده است. مفاهیمی چون تغییرات پیشرونده،پروگروسیونیسم یونیفورمی تاریانیسم، آلومتری، دورجغرافیایی، ارگودیسیتی و... همه از مفاهیم و مدلهایی هستند که سعی در بیان نحوهی تحولات ارضی در بستر زمان دارند ولی مبنای کار همهی آنها بر مفهوم نجومی زمان استوار نیست.
در این میان زمان و رابطهی آن با توالی پدیدهها موضوع اصلی تحلیل در این زمینه است. مشکل اصلی یک ژئوموفورفولوژیست آن است که معمولاً زمان کافی برای مشاهدهی چگونگی پیدایش چشماندازها را در اختیار ندارد. این بدین معنی است که بیان دقیق چگونگی ارتباط میان مشاهدات صورت گرفته در طیّ دورههای چندماهه یا چند ساله و تکامل چشماندازها در طول هزاران سال یا بیشتر امری دشوار است. تلاشهای زیادی در جهت رفع این مشکل صورت گرفته است ویکی از این ترفندها جایگزینی فضا و زمان است. بخشی از مفهوم ارگودیسیتی در ژئومورفولوژی معطوف به چنین موضوعی است.
با توجه به آنکه چنین مفهومی در ادبیات ژئومورفولوژی بویژه ایران مغفول مانده است لذا در این مقاله که برگرفته از یک طرح نظری در دانشگاه اصفهان بوده است سعی شده ضمن ارائهی دقیقی از معنا و مفهوم این واژه در ژئومورفولوژی کاربرد آن در مباحث زمین ریختشناسی تبیین گردد. این مهم با ایجاد فضای مینیاتوری از یک حوضهی آبریز و ایجاد بارش مصنوعی تحقق یافت و در واقع ردیابی تغییرات یک صحنه طبیعی در مقیاس میکرو سبب شد که الگوی تحول در چنین مدلی ارزیابی گردد .
Spatial Analysis of the Relationship between Social Capital and Sustainable Urban Development Case Study: Cities of West Azarbaijan Province
Dr. Mir Najaf Mousavi
Assistant Professor of Urban Planning Geography
University of Urmia
Ph.D Student of Urban Planning Geography
University of Tabriz
M.Sc of Sociology
Azad University of Sardasht
From 1970s onward, the concept and meaning of development was revised that the result of this change was the concept of human development. An important dimension of human development is sustainable development which emphasizes on changing human based view to production based view. Accordingly, physical capital is not the only investment in a country but also human and social capitals gain more importance and can be an essential tool with high capability and performance in clarifying and solving the issues and problems human society faced with, which provide the situation for achieving sustainable development . Hence, the concept of sustainable development, sees the environment health and tendency to sustainable development through the partnership of local organizations. This partnership will lead to social capital. This social capital must be with more per capita for the next generations comparing with today's generation. Social capital like the concept of physical capital and human capital refers to the characteristics of social organization such as networks, norms and trust which facilitates the coordination and cooperation for mutual benefit. Social capital increases the benefit of investment in the field of physical and human capital. Nowadays, many of designers and planners know social capital as an important tool for sustainable development in the environment, social, cultural and economical field and have special attention on this issue and in practice consider social capital and sustainable development as supplement and related from different aspects. The purpose of this paper is to analyze the social capital theory and its relationship to sustainable development in the cities of West Azarbaijan province in Iran. Accordingly, first the various dimensions of social capital in the cities of West Azarbaijan province have been evaluated and then sustainability of the cities have been leveled and finally, the relationship between social capital and sustainable development in the cities of West Azarbaijan province is discussed.
This is an applied research type and its study methods is descriptive – analytical and correlation. Statistical society is 36 cities of West Azarbaijan province for sustainable development based on administrative- political divisions of year 2006. The indices of urban sustainable development includes 8 features of population, social, economical, health-medical, cultural, urban infrastructure facilities and equipment, transport and communication and physical indices. The sample volume has been selected 384 people based on Cochran’s formula for the component of social capital. Component of social capital indices include 5 components of social participation, high interest to society , social trust, cooperation and assistance, family relations and friends. Sampling method to measure social capital is sampling with optimal allocation based on population of each city. Tool for gathering sustainable development data which includes 53 indices, are public census of population of housing, statistical yearbooks and relevant organizations and institutions. Tool for gathering social capital data is questionnaire .the questionnaire has been measured through Likert and a five-choice scale. The models of Tapsis , Entropy Coefficient and cluster analysis are used for analysis of sustainable urban development. Also for the relationship between the variables, the inferential statistical tests such as correlation, regression and path analysis were used.
Discussions and Results
Research findings show that from the view point of urban sustainable development, out of 36 cities of the province, Urmia city is placed at very high-level development and Mahabad, Khoy and Bukan at high-level development and 6 cities at medium-level and other cities are placed at low and very low-level of development, that shows a gap between the cities in sustainable urban development. From the view point of social capital, cities of Mahabad, Bukan, Urmia, Khoy are placed at very high-level ,7 cities at high-level, 12 cities at medium-level and 13 cities at low and very low-level.
Findings obtained from field studies show that social capital in the cities of West Azarbaijan province is 2.96 that is 59.28 % , which its most part belongs to Mahabad city with about 76.6% and its lowest belongs to Firuragh city of about 48.4%. Also, Findings show that the relations of family and friends with 3.39 namely 67.8% has the highest and social participation with 2.66 namely 53.2 % has the lowest level of social capital. In terms of physical development, Findings indicate the development of large cities and lack of development of small towns, and in terms of social capital, larger cities likewise have higher social capital than smaller cities. In general, the results indicate that among the five dimensions of social capital , social participation, high interest to society, cooperation and assistance, family relations and friends have a significant relationship with urban sustainable development and social trust due to its weak relation with urban sustainable development is meaningless.
The results show that the rate of urban inequality for sustainable development indices is 1.33 in the cities of West Azarbaijan province, that shows the gap between the components of urban sustainable development. Moreover, the spatial distribution of the development level shows development is very low in most cities. Also, in terms of overall development, the pattern of regional space in West Azarbaijan province is Core-Periphery. That is how much become closer to the big cities in terms of demographic, economic, administrative , the cities are more developed because most cities in the province are small towns. Therefore, these cities are located at the surrounding areas of the province. Also, the top-down planning in the structure plan of the state and regions has increased the proscription of small towns. In total based on the results, we can say that component of the high interest to society with 0.395 has had the highest impact on sustainable development in cities of West Azarbaijan province. Finally, based on the existing facts, we can say that there is a relation between sustainable development and social capital to the amount of 0.67 with % 99 of confidence level.
Spatial Analysis of the Relationship between Social Capital and ...
Keywords: Social capital, Urban sustainable development, Spatial analysis, West azarbaijan Province.
1- Akbari, N., & Mahdi Zahedi, K (2008). Application of Ranking Methods and Multi-Criteria Decision Making, the Publications of Municipalities Organization of Iran, Tehran.
2- Alavi, S.B (2001). the Role of Social Capital in the Development, Tadbir Magazine, No. 16.
3- Asgharpour, M.J (2008). Multi-criteria decision making, Tehran University Press.
4- Azkiya, M (1998). Sociology of Development, Tehran, Nashr-e Kalameh Publisher.
5- Azkiya, M, & Ghaffari, G.R (2005). Sociology of Development, Tehran, Published by Keyhan.
6- Behzad, D (2002). the Social Capital bed for Mental Health, Journal of Social Welfare, Year II, No.6.
7- Brahman, J (2002). People-Oriented Development, Translated by Abdul Reza Rokneddin Eftekhari and Morteza Tavakoli, Printing and Publishing in Commercial Company, Institute of Business Studies and Research.
8- Chalabi, M., & Mobaraki, M (2005). Analyze the Relationship between Social Capital and Crime in the Micro and Macro Levels in Iran, Journal of Sociology, Volume VI, Issue 2.
9- Engelhard, R (1994). Cultural Change in Industrial Society, Translated by Mary Chord, Kavir Press.
10- Field, J (2005). Social Capital, Translated by Jalal Mottaghi, Institute of Social Security.
11- Firoozabadi, S.A., & Imani Jajarmi, H (2006). Social Capital and Economic and Social Development in Tehran Metropolis, Journal of Social Welfare, No.33.
12- Fakohi, N (2000). from Culture to the Development, the Publication of Ferdows, Tehran.
13- Fukuyama, F (1995). Trust: The Social Virtues and the Creation of Prosperity. New York, Free Press.
14- Fukuyama, F (2001). Social Capital, Civil Society and Development, Third World Quarterly.
15- Fukuyama, F (2005). Social Capital and Civil Society, Translated by Afshin Khakbaz & Hasan Pouyan, Shirazeh Publisher.
16- Ghaffari, G.R (2004). Analysis of Survey Finding of Values and Attitudes of Iranians (in Iran's Social Trust), the Ministry of Culture and Islamic Guidance Press, Tehran.
17- Grootaert, C (1999). Social Capital, the Missing Link, Social Bank, No. 14.
18- Hafeznia, M. R (2001). an Introduction to the Research in Humanities, Fifth Edition, Samt Publisher.
19- Hanifan (1916). the Rural School Community Center, Annals of American Academy of Political and Social Science, No.67.
20- Jacobs, J (1965). the Death and Life of Great American Cities, N.Y: Random House.
21- Kalantari, K (2003). Processing and Data Analysis in economic and Social Research use of the software SPSS, Publishing by Sharif, Tehran.
22- Lsham, J., & Kahkonen, S (1999). what Determines the Effectiveness of Community-Based Water Projects? Evidence from Central Java, Indonesia on Demand Responsiveness, Service Rules, and Social Capital, Social Capital Initiative Working Paper, Washington, DC, The World Bank, No. 14.
23- Mobaraki, M (2004). Scrutiny Relationship between Social Capital and Crime, Master's Thesis in the social science, Shahid Beheshti University.
24- Mohammadi, S.A., Prusanna, B., & Singh, N.N(2003). Sequential Path Mode for Determination Interrelation among Grain Yield and Related Characters in Maize, Grop, Sci, 43.
25- Naraghi, Y (1996). Developed and Underdeveloped Countries, Joint Stock Publication, Tehran
26- Narayan, D., & Pritchett, I (1999). Cents and Sociability: Household Income and Social Capital in Rural Tanzania, Economic Development and Cultural Change, Vol. 47, No. 4.
27- Pour Mohammadi, M.R., & Zali, N (2004). Human Development, Challenges and Prospects (with an Analytical Look at the Human Development Indices in Iran): Journal of Social and Human Sciences of Tabriz University, Year I, No.5.
28- Putnam (1993). Making Democracy Work: Civic Traditions Modern Italy, Princeton, N.Y: Princeton University Press.
29- Saee, A (1377). Political and Economic Issues in the Developing World, Tehran, Samt Publisher.
30- Sergageldin, & Grootaert, C (2000). Defining Social Capital: an Integrating View.
31- Sergeldin, I (1996). Sustainability as Opportunity and Problem of Social Capital, Brown Journal of World Affairs, Vol. 3, No. 2.
32- Tajbakhsh, K., & Asadi Kiya, B (1382). Theory of Social Capital: The Issue of Them for Economic and Social Development, Ghofteman Press.
33- Tosun, C (2001). Challenges of Sustainable Tourism Development in Developing: the Ease of Turkey, Journal of Tourist Management, No. 22.
34- Wang, G.M., Kong, S., & Moreno, O (1999). Genetic Analysis of Grain Filling Rate and Duration in Maize Field Corpses, No, 61.
35- Wetumka, P (2005). Confidence in a Social Theory, Translated by Fatemeh Golabi, Sotodeh Publisher.
36- Williams, W.A., Jones, B., & Demment, M (1990). a Concise Table for Path Analysis Statistics, Agron, J.82.
کلیدواژه ها [English]
Social Capital, Urban sustainable development, spatial analysis, West Azarbaijan province