هدف مطالعهی حاضر بررسی تأثیر بالاآمدگی تکتونیکی طاقدیس دنهخشک در مقدار برش مخروطافکنهها است. جهت دستیابی به هدف فوق، محدودهی 103 مخروطافکنه به کمک تصویر ماهوارهای کویکبرد و مطالعهی میدانی ترسیم گردید و سپس در محیط نرمافزار ILWIS رقومی شد. بهمنظور تعیین مقدار برش سطح مخروطها، طیّ مطالعات میدانی، عمیقترین کانال در رأس هر مخروطافکنه شناسایی شد. سپس اختلاف ارتفاع بستر کانال با سطح قدیمی مخروط افکنه در سمت راست و سمت چپ کانال اندازهگیری گردید. شیب ساختمانی لایهها در پهلوی طاقدیس در جبهه کوهستان(در بالادست مخروط افکنهها) با استفاده از دستگاه شیبسنج محاسبه شد. بررسی مقادیر برش سطح مخروطافکنهها و شیب ساختمانی پهلوی طاقدیس نشان میدهد که با افزایش شیب لایهها، مقدار برش سطح مخروطافکنهها افزایش مییابد. نتیجهی این تحقیق بیانگر آن است که بیشترین مقدار برش، بر سطح مخروطافکنههای واقع در پرشیبترین پهلوهای طاقدیس اتفاق افتاده است. تجزیه و تحلیل دادهها نشان میدهد که بین برش سطح مخروطافکنهها و شیب لایهها در بالادست مخروطها رابطهی مستقیمی با ضریب همبستگی 65 درصد وجود دارد. نتایج نشان میدهد که در مخروطهای دارای حوضههای آبخیز بزرگتر (با مساحت بین 50 تا 85/736 هکتار)، ضریب همبستگی بین مقدار برش سطح مخروط و شیب ساختمانی پهلوی طاقدیس، بالاتر(86 درصد) است. این موضوع نشان میدهد که مخروط افکنههای با حوضههای بزرگتر نسبت به مخروطهای با حوضههای کوچکتر، به بالاآمدگی تکتونیکی بسیار حساستر هستند. نتایج همچنین نشان میدهد که رابطهی معنیداری بین مساحت حوضهی بالادست مخروطها با میزان برش سطح مخروطها دیده نمیشود بهطوریکه ضریب همبستگی بین دو پارامتر مذکور 09/0 است. به طور کلی نتیجهی این تحقیق بیانگر آن است که برش سطح مخروطافکنههای مورد مطالعه کاملاً متأثر از وضعیت تکتونیکی یا شیب ساختمانی پهلوهای طاقدیس است.
Sustainable Local Development and Attracting Maximum Participation of People
Case Study: The Experiences of International Project of Carbon Sequestration in South Khorasan
Dr. Rostam Saberifar
Assistant Professor of Geography
University of Payam Noor
Dr. Mahmood Fal Soleyman
Assistant Professor of Geography
University of Birjand
M.Sc University of Payam Noor
Although, villagers are the societies with simple social, cultural and economical relations, but in most of the areas, the existence of cultural, ethnic, and religious conflicts issues and more important, the intensive contrast of social classes has caused societies with its specific complications. For this reason, developing proper approaches for entering in to such societies is the main concern of programmers and policy-makers. The experiences of several decades of activities about rural development shows that failure of programs and unsuccess in accompanying people and their maximum cooperation in the plans and constructional, social, and cultural projects has a close relation with the attraction of villagers’ confidence. Therefore, it seems that if we be able to increase the villagers’ confidence toward programmers and policy-makers, a large part of these problems will be solved. The experiences of some successful plans show that the best solution for this problem is to involve practically villagers into planning, implementation and evaluation processes. The condition that is noticed in some projects, including the Carbon Sequestration Project (CSP), which is implemented in Hossein Abad of Sarbisheh region. The managers of this project who, through maintaining and reviving natural resources of the region, have intended to increase the current Carbon Sequestration realized that they cannot reach the targets without participation and accompaniment of people. This group, after studing the social and cultural condition of the region and observing weak results of previous plans reached to this end that they should concentrate their most attempts on attracting the participation of people. They found that they should make plans together with people, instead of for people. Also this research is implemented to introduce this project.
This survey is implemented by descriptive and analytic method. Therefore, a sample size with 354 people is selected by random method. 188 people of this sample are the villagers who are inhabited in the area of CSP and the inhabits of the adjacent villages who have not enjoyed from facilities of this project. Moreover, to study the conformity of the considered priorities of the project authorities and people, the priorities considered by senior authorities of the project area were considered and asked. For more accurate and precise study of the condition, the required information were obtained through questionnaire. Formal and local statistists were used in addition of field statistics and information. A pretest is performed to determine the validity of the questionnaire in the under the study area; and then 0.94 Cronbach's alpha coefficient was obtained by using SPSS software which indicates that the questions of the questionnaire have a great validity.
Discussion and Results
CSP has directly involved people into planning, implementation, and supervision fields to set demands and proprieties of them. So that, it is sound that CSP has come to provide villagers demands and needs, rather than to maintain and/or increase vegetation of the region. In fact, when the intended priorities of the people and authorities were compared, this survey showed that the average of scores that the people and the authorities have assigned, are too close together and nearly the same. Therefore, participation in CSP has got near to 80 percent. In contrary to most of the plans, this participation has been involved various groups of people. Maximum participation of people and following-up the project implementation conditions through correct and democratic methods, have brought specific consequences and blessings. For example, the current surveys showed that the income condition of households that exploit from the facilities of the project are too better than the households who are not located in the project. According to the obtained results and sequences from implementation of CSP, it is identified that the people have highly got confidence to the project and even they are hopeful to its future. so that, the results of the survey about forecasting a willing future for this project and other similar projects show that 66 percent of the people are hopeful to the future of these activities. On this basis, through realization of maximum participation of people ,the sense of possession and participation in the results and consequences of constructional plans will be provided and people play not only the role of its protector and supporter powers but also as the permanent preserver and keeper.
Since, most of constructional projects in rural areas don’t face with the participation and willingness of villagers, therefore they do not have distinguished results, and the main target of the current research is to identify how this basic problem can be removed. For this reason, the obtained experiences from the International Carbon Sequestration Project have been discussed. Initial surveys showed that significant revolution occurred in economical and social condition of Hossein-Abad-e Ghinab area, through implementation of CSP. Within the process of designing and implementation of the Project, firstly authorities of the project tried to lead the people. In second step, after presenting necessary training and information, they limit their performance range to guidance and cooperation. In third and final step, authorities sufficed to present necessary and demanded consulting by villagers. By this way, villagers, themselves, take the initiative and really get involved into practice.
Sustainable Local Development and Attracting Maximum ...
Continuing this procedure caused that the people not only contrast against the CSP but also they be considered as designer and executer of that, by presenting their little savings. This action has brought good and effective results, including maximum people participation in the plan, increase of villagers’ income, decrease of immigration, sense of possession to the established installation and equipments and consequently protecting and maintaining them, etc.
Mainly, the obtained results and sequences from this project showed that if people practically got involved into constructional plans and projects and their views be used in this issue, not only the budgets and the spent cost will not be wasted, but will have results and consequences more that what forecasted. For this reason, it is advised that the experiences of CSP to be considered preciously take an attention and practically applied in other plans and projects about rural development and even in urban and regional plans.
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کلیدواژه ها [English]
Local development, Directed interventions, Rural society, Participation, Carbon sequestration project